There are many Q&A here in RPi SE that discuss various technical aspects of USB hubs. In your case (based on your question), it seems the key feature you need is a self-powered USB hub - vs a host-powered hub. In summary, the self-powered hub will provide power to the drives that are plugged into the hub, thus saving capacity of your RPi power supply.
There is an option in File Manager preferences to disable it.
This needs to be done in the GUI, either by attaching a monitor or using VNC.
If you don't use the GUI disable login to Desktop and enable login to command line.
disk is damaged and cannot be read
Maybe. Have you tried attaching it to something else to check?
Identify the device at fault and prevent future loss.
Beyond confirming that the drive works when attached to a normal system (laptop/desktop) but not with the Pi, you won't be able to do that.
If it doesn't work when attached to another system, you might as ...
Add hdparm -S 240 -B 127 -K 1 /dev/sda to your startup script:
Query/set Advanced Power Management feature, if the drive supports it. A low value means aggressive power management and a high value means better performance. Possible settings range from values 1 through 127 (which permit spin-down), and values 128 through 254 (which do not permit spin-down)...
As you & @GramThanos discussed in comments, the original hd-idle may be capable of improving your drive's energy efficiency. However, it was last updated in April, 2014, which suggests it has been orphaned by its author. If you want an open-source solution that is more current, the hd-idle distro on GitHub is claimed by its author/maintainer to offer &...