I have never used a Linux system before and have never even taken a computer class so bear with me. I got this to work so you should be able to as well. I grabbed a couple of the Pi 4's, the 4GB and 8GB models and downloaded Kali Linux on my laptop. Here is what I did to get it to work.
On the Linux system:
sudo apt if not in root (enter root by sudo su or ...
One option would be to try ApplePi Baker from Tweaking4All
I've found it has handled cards where DD failed but TBH it does look like the card has a real issue and Rsync may be the only way get your data off.
I would not try to rescue the OS unless you have a very specific config - if you have lost an OS file the new card could die at the wrong moment in the ...
First, you have to make sure you are using the right device for your input. Open a terminal window, then:
Locate your SD card device. You will have e.g. :
sdf 8:80 1 7,5G 0 disk
├─sdf1 8:81 1 256M 0 part /media/m/boot
└─sdf2 8:82 1 7,3G 0 part /media/m/rootfs
sdf is my device for input, not sdf1 or sdf2.
$> sudo ...