Making partition is necessary and you must do it with specified software. Copying from a zip file won't work in this case. After you finish partitioning you will find the boot partition(if you are using windows and used the etcher software for partitioning). Hope this helps.
You cannot setup NOOBS without a screen and keyboard.
You can't find the boot partition because it doesn't exist until you have setup NOOBS - in which case you might as well enable ssh via raspi-config. (Indeed you can't access it on Windows, even then.)
If you only want to run the officially supported Raspberry Pi OS there is no benefit is using NOOBS and ...
Since RPF changed the default to have SSH disabled, you cannot set Raspbian up with SSH via NOOBS simply.
The only way to get this to work requires your Mac or PC to be able to recognise all partitions on the card and then:
Install Raspbian via NOOBS
Insert the card back in your machine
Identify /boot partition
Add the SSH file into this
Not the simplest ...
The illegible image is probably a NOOBS installation.
The error indicates something on partition 6 is not running.
This is probably caused by some file which has become corrupt.
If you have a backup you could try restoring from this.
Otherwise you should do a fresh installation - it is also advisable to use a new SD Card; these do wear out, and you ...