So, you can turn off most logging completely by just disabling the rsyslog service by editing rsyslog.conf. This I'm sure has been answered many times before on here.
As someone who logs a lot of information for a Pi server 24/7, my microSD's are fine using programs like log2ram, which will write to RAM instead until some interval/condition you set to make ...
Just study raspi-config which is just a simple (if rather long) shell script and extract the bits you need.
It is actually possible to call the functions in raspi-config.
enable_overlayfs() disable_overlayfs() should work (but I have not tried).
ifup will not work with wireless, you should rather use iwconfig wlan0.
On my system, sudo rfkill unblock 0 followed by iwlist wlan0 scan works fine. There's no need for sudo in the second command. It could be that you have installed several network managers at the same time, or using the wireless interface in AP mode.
You may be making this harder than it needs to be - or maybe not. But in any case, minimizing the re-invention of the wheel, you may want to check out Cypress Semiconductor's Solar Beacons. The hardware, demo software & "other stuff" is available as a kit. Monitoring beehives sounds like an appropriate application for the Solar Beacons.
Interesting questions and great project! I also think that a more light weight single board computer/microcontroller would make sense for the hive sensors, but a Pi could function as an effective central hub for data processing and storage until you are able to retrieve it.
As for your questions around power/solar use: I am currently working on a sensor ...
Run your IDE from command line, then you'll likely see the error messages besides just "Loading". Most likely it's a RAM issue, I have seen Java IDEs taking more than 1 GB of RAM when they load.
You can try enabling the swap file and increasing the swap size to a couple of GB, but if you run out of RAM on IDE loading, it is unlikely that you'll be ...