No the display can only be configured at boot. The exception is Pi4.
The Pi4 does not support the display_hdmi_rotate parameter by default but you can make it operate the same as previous models. See https://raspberrypi.stackexchange.com/a/106375/8697
You could write a script that modifies config.txt and reboots, which I have done in the past.
The Pi4 has ...