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@Ghanima: a final question: if I duplicate the workable circuit to drive multiple relays, is it allowed to share Ground (X1-1) and 5V (X1-2) as depicted in my drawing. Or should it be different separate circuits ?, however Ground and 5V will be shared via the PSU connectors then... PS. what is OP stands for?


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Unfortunately there are many different relay boards out there using this particular relay but that might feature different driving electronics. So it's difficult to give a definitive answer. There are however some indications that this excellent arcticle /1/ covers this board and the problems the OP describes. (Image source: /1/) I leave it to the OP to ...


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From the rather unclear photos you have posted the device does not have an opto-isolator but a transistor. It is unclear why it doesn't work, however there is another type of poor module, triggered by a low level, with a PNP transistor which is not controllable from 3.3V. (This saved the manufacturer some fraction of a cent.) Without a circuit it is not ...


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You've made a mistake, I'm afraid. You seem to be attempting to switch the relay coil with a GPIO pin. Unless your relay module is designed to use a 3.3V input you are at risk of breaking another RPi. GPIO pins are for 3.3V - and ONLY 3.3V In addition, the GPIO pins are delicate little flowers; they won't source (or sink) much current, and they don't ...


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