You can't. The RPi4B needs the latest bootcode, kernel and firmware (built after June 2019) or it won't boot.
You'll need https://cdimage.kali.org/kali-2019.4/kali-linux-2019.4-light-armhf.img.xz (and will probably need to check with the Kali developers to confirm that works on a RPi4B).
From the additional information you posted it appears you are using NOOBS (as the error message suggested).
I don't know why the Foundation continues to recommend NOOBS - the experienced users on this site don't use it - even on the Foundation Forum experienced users advise against using NOOBS, because it just makes everything more difficult.
You have 3 ...
There is NOTHING to reset if you do a fresh installation.
Do NOT use NOOBS install Raspbian.
If you install using Etcher (as recommended) this will verify the image after copying.
It is quite likely (if you have been using the same SD Card since the Pi2) that the SD Card is worn out - I suggest a new SD Card.
See The Boot Problems Sticky if you want to ...
That what @Milliways wrote in his answer. To answer your question about testing for bad blocks on the SD Card: you cannot test it, simply while a SD Card does not have blocks. It has cells with limited live time for writing it. SD Cards today have spare cells that will be used on the fly for defected cells and a logic will always show you a proper SD Card ...