Yes, you can recover your data. You're going to need a Linux system, preferably Debian, with enough free space to hold an image of your card, i.e. about 16GB. You can do this with a Raspberry Pi with a 64GB microSD card as the boot device. If you're building things with the Raspberry Pi, you need such an SD card anyway, just for things like this. Flash ...
It is doable without a third-party computer, but is tricky. Back-up first.
You can resize the partitions with fdisk alone, by deleting them and recreating them at exactly the right locations. Write down the start and end sectors of each partition, as you have in the output of fdisk above. Then run sudo fdisk /dev/mmcblk0, and inside the fdisk prompt, run ...
From the additional information you posted it appears you are using NOOBS (as the error message suggested).
I don't know why the Foundation continues to recommend NOOBS - the experienced users on this site don't use it - even on the Foundation Forum experienced users advise against using NOOBS, because it just makes everything more difficult.
You have 3 ...
Repeat the backup using one of the supported tools (which DO NOT include Win32DiskImager) and try again. Alternatively use SD Card Copier
See Periodic backup of Rpi3 Stretch SD card for a discussion of methods.
There is NOTHING to reset if you do a fresh installation.
Do NOT use NOOBS install Raspbian.
If you install using Etcher (as recommended) this will verify the image after copying.
It is quite likely (if you have been using the same SD Card since the Pi2) that the SD Card is worn out - I suggest a new SD Card.
See The Boot Problems Sticky if you want to ...
I've done just this using gphoto2. You can run the program from the cli, a gui, and there is also a Python wrapper here. The number of cameras supported is quite large. You can designate where you want the images to be saved to which includes downloading them to say, your raspberry pi.
Install from the command line:
sudo apt install gphoto2
Using the cli ...
To verify that the OS works, in the boot section of the micro SD card, create a file named "ssh" without an extension. Then, connect an Ethernet cable to the Raspberry Pi and connect the other end to your router. Boot up your Pi by powering it up.
Next, get an IP scan application (I used Angry IP Scanner) and locate the IP address of your Pi. It will be ...
You can't. The RPi4B needs the latest bootcode, kernel and firmware (built after June 2019) or it won't boot.
You'll need https://cdimage.kali.org/kali-2019.4/kali-linux-2019.4-light-armhf.img.xz (and will probably need to check with the Kali developers to confirm that works on a RPi4B).
You cannot resize a mounted image.
The easiest approach would be to resize on another Linux system.
The traditional approach is described in https://raspberrypi.stackexchange.com/a/37744/8697 - this is effectively what raspi-config does, but if you don't have the standard Linux tools you would be out of luck.
First of all, you can enable ssh by creating a file named ssh without any extension on your SD card and rebooting your Pi. Then you can connect to your Pi through ssh from another machine by using ssh pi@yourPiName.local (where yourPiName is raspberry or whatever you set) or ssh pi@yourPiIpAddress )where yourPiIpAddress is the IP address of your Pi) and ...
That what @Milliways wrote in his answer. To answer your question about testing for bad blocks on the SD Card: you cannot test it, simply while a SD Card does not have blocks. It has cells with limited live time for writing it. SD Cards today have spare cells that will be used on the fly for defected cells and a logic will always show you a proper SD Card ...
Formatting is unnecessary and a total waste of time - copying an image doesn't care what is on the card.
If you get a checksum error the SD Card is probably worn out (assisted by unnecessary formatting attempts)
Download bootloader archive from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/. Unpack it on to freshly FAT32 formatted µSD card (mine was partitioned and had boot flag enabled for the partition). RPI4 should be able to boot from it and restore EEPROM contents. If it succeeds it will start to flash ACT LED rapidly. There is also some progress info outputted to its ...
I use the following procedure to make backup images.
This can be used to make minimal sized, full size or arbitrary sized images.
The prompts for image size on initial backup; subsequent backups update the image.
I backup my 32GB cards to a 13GB image (which can be compressed to less than 5GB for ...
Rpi's SD Card copier is a great tool you can use to create copy of your cards,it can create a copy of bigger SD card to smaller one.(as long as it has enough space to store all your files)
Raspbian in 32 GB memory card can be copied to 16 GB,but it should not use storage more than 16 GB.
link for this feature :
link for this update