━━━ Setting up an access point ━━━
We are talking about an access point together with an ethernet port eth0.
If you want an access point together with a wlan0 client connection to another wifi network (wlan repeater) then look at Access point as WiFi router/repeater, optional with bridge.
It is possible to configure Raspbian Stretch as a wifi access point ...
First to shine a light on this mish/mash of different commands. On Raspbian there are three concurrent network environments installed: old style debian networking with ifupdown is configured in etc/network/interfaces but it is deprecated. The default networking environment of Raspbian is managed by dhcpcd and configured in /etc/dhcpcd.conf. Old style ...
The actual feature was added to systemd in https://github.com/systemd/systemd/pull/8494 which is included in version 239
See docs in :
systemd-time-wait-sync is a system service that delays the start of units that depend on time-sync.target until the system time has been synchronized with an accurate time source by systemd-timesyncd.service.
This means ...
Raspbian Jessie no longer has a file called /etc/sysctl.d -- it's now a folder of the same name.
According to the read-me file in the same folder, README.sysctl, it basically says that any .conf file will be read in at boot time and processed. Any legal file name will work, but they suggested local.conf, so that's what I used.
I created /etc/sysctl.d/local....
Please note the answer from @jarondl. There is a new systemd-time-wait-sync service that we can use since Raspbian Buster.
To syncronize with the time service there is a special time-sync.target. In man systemd.special you will find:
Services responsible for synchronizing the system clock from a remote source (such as NTP ...
The kernel expects two things: a root filesystem, and an init daemon that resides on it. The init included with raspbian is a sysV style system. You are not tied to that -- other init systems commonly used with linux (remember: the kernel is linux) are systemd and upstart -- but you do need an init system of some sort.
You can also put init in an ...
There are mainly three setups to have a peer to peer network:
unprotected ad-hoc interface by configuring the WiFi device
unprotected ad-hoc interface using wpa_supplicant
Only with suitable (RSN-IBSS capable) USB dongle:
protected ad-hoc interface using wpa_supplicant and WPA encryption
Raspbian Stretch Lite 2019-04-08 updated on 2019-04-14.
Edit /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf , especially the second line
FallbackNTP=0.arch.pool.ntp.org 1.arch.pool.ntp.org 2.arch.pool.ntp.org 3.arch.pool.ntp.org
For just getting started, I think you have the wrong concept of using embedded computers (especially at the Raspberry Pi level). If you really want to build a custom OS I suggest you start at Linux from Scratch, LFS, http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/ but if you want to understand embedded computing start by Googling "embedded systems", Wikipedia, or Embedded ...
An even EASIER way of setting up a Raspberry Pi as an AP is to use the pi-ap Github repo which automates configuration of a Pi 3B+/4 into an AP.
Connect the Pi to a free port in your Internet-connected router which has DHCP enabled (probably the case in most consumer routers).
Once connected, SSH into Pi on the DHCP assigned IP assigned to eth0 by router ...
First we need to change over completely to systemd (which might be the future anyway), as Ingo has explained here:
# deinstall classic networking
sudo -Es # if not already done
apt --autoremove purge ifupdown dhcpcd5 isc-dhcp-client isc-dhcp-common rsyslog
apt-mark hold ifupdown dhcpcd5 isc-dhcp-client isc-dhcp-common rsyslog raspberrypi-net-mods ...
What do I need to sucessfully boot my Raspberry Pi 2 until the init system is loaded? I think I need only the files on the boot partition, because /sbin/init is a symlink to e.g. systemd.
/sbin/init and systemd are not on the boot partition. They could be. I notice there's no cmdline.txt in that github repo; normally the root= parameter in that indicates ...
These are for SysV compatibility, which traditionally has been the most widespread init system used on GNU/Linux since its inception. I believe SysV scripts also have a degree of compatibility with BSD init, used on other contemporary POSIX operating systems. While none of that is actually part of the POSIX specification, some commonplace cross-platform ...
Yes, It Is Possible
While the current version of systemd in Raspbian Stable (Jessie) is 215-17+deb8u7, there are ways to get newer versions.
Testing Repository (Stretch), Unstable Repository (Sid)
A later version might be available in either the repository for Raspbian Testing (Stretch) or Raspbian Unstable (Sid). Be aware that the newer software is more ...
It's still systemd that handles the old-style init scripts, using systemd-sysv-generator:
systemd-sysv-generator is a generator that creates wrapper .service units for SysV init scripts in /etc/init.d/* at boot and when configuration of the system manager is reloaded. This will allow systemd(1) to support them similarly to native units.
LSB headers in ...
As previously mentioned, systemd services are ran by the root user instead of the pi user. However, you can configure your .service file to run the script as a different user.
Under the [Service] area in your .service file, add the following line:
Your .service file should look like this:
Description=The bulb server
In /etc/openvpn/ your configs must end in .conf and not .ovpn!
I'm about to make some bold claims that are specific to...
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ uname -a && lsb_release -a
Linux raspberrypi 4.4.50-v7+ #970 SMP Mon Feb 20 19:18:29 GMT 2017 armv7l GNU/Linux
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Raspbian
Description: Raspbian ...
Init services run as root. Do not include sudo in service files run by init, regardless of whether it is SysV or systemd.
I would try [but please see comments, this is a bit personal preference]:
Then in /home/pi/...
Use gphoto2 to trigger continuous periodic capture
This solution uses gphoto2 to remote control the DSLR and converts a Raspberry Pi to an intervalometer. It sets up the continuous capture as a systemd service so that your camera will start shooting as soon as the Raspberry Pi is ready.
Download Raspbian lite and write it to an SD card, e.g. with Etcher.
If you do not want to take the risk of corrupting your SD Card by disabling fsck on startup you can use your first suggestion: "lengthening the timeout" on starting services. With systemd you can easily change DefaultTimeoutStartSec in
In man systemd.service you will find:
TimeoutStartSec= Configures the time to wait for start-...
I don't know what you want to achieve but as you can read in man systemd:
systemd is a system and service manager for Linux operating systems. When run as first process on boot (as PID 1), it acts as init system that brings up and maintains userspace services.
When run as a system instance, systemd interprets the configuration file system.conf ...
You'll need to add a working directory to your unit file as the Pi user won't have write access to put cmdfile.txt into the root of the volume (or whereever systemd roots itself).
in your Unit file add...
...and reload the daemon. You can change this to where you want but it must be somewhere pi can write to.
There a different ways you could achieve what you want.
Method 1 – use systemd-networkd
If you want to use systemd just follow step 1 and step 3 of this tutorial. Just omit this command systemctl enable wpa_supplicant@wlan0, so wpa_supplicant won't bring your interface up at boot. If you want to start it manually run sudo systemctl start wpa_supplicant@...
First of all: you are running Raspbian Stretch but tagged the question with pi-4. This is not possible. A Raspberry Pi 4B can only run Raspbian Buster.
Your timer Unit looks good and should do. But you define some default settings that are not necessary. This normally should not do any harm, but having problems it's always a good idea to configure with ...
sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
append the following lines to turn off ipv6:
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 1
run sudo sysctl -p to take effect or just reboot.
In Raspbian Jessie/Jessie Lite, simply edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file and add the switch to disable ipv6, as follows:
sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
Enter the text:
Save the file with Ctrl-O, Ctrl-X and reboot the RPi.
I solved it. It turned out what was blocking OpenVPN from starting at boot was the local IP. The steps I took to make this work were:
Commenting out the local IP address in /etc/openvpn/server.conf
Switching to root with sudo -s
Adding @reboot systemctl start firstname.lastname@example.org to root's crontab