It really comes down to architecture and how your code is written.
Your question is not very precise. Do you want to run C++ on raspbian? Or do you want to actually use the raspberry Pi as uC?
If the first option is the case:
Just try to compile the source code on the Raspberry Pi. If the code was written with arm architecture in mind sure you can compile ...
I tried various tutorials, but the results were always too slow to be useful. (took 20 mins to boot, took 1 min to register a mouse click, 10 minutes to open Windows Explorer, etc)
Then I discovered PINN has a pre-built image that emulates Windows 98 at a usable speed. (boots in less than 3 min, mouse click register in 5 seconds, 2 min to open Windows ...
This seems to be an edge case, but the root cause was an invalid Bonjour installation, which prevented the raspberrypi.local hostname from being resolved.
This became apparent as all .local hostnames would resolve to my own machine.
As I was unable to get a correct Bonjour installation, my solution was to install iTunes instead.
They key is this message
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
The server is configured to accept only publickey authentication.
If you can't connect a display to the Pi and login locally, you can always download a life Linux system and boot it on your PC. Anyway, look at the sshd_config on the SD card and make sure that password ...