I'm not a user of Mathematica, but I have used Matlab in the past. If your needs for Mathematica can be satisfied by Matlab, then you may find GNU's
Octave distribution worth a try - Octave tries its best to be a clone of Matlab.
Octave is in RPi's package repository:
apt-cache showpkg octave
informs us that the version is 4.4 (the current build is 6.1).
Octave can be run from either the GUI, or the command line. This means you can run it from either the Lite or the Desktop distros of RPi OS.
I've found Octave a decent package to use, but I don't do anything "heavy duty". My positive recommendation for Octave ends with Octave itself. My personal experience with some of its "package extensions" is negative - very negative in fact. The project has an incoherent approach to managing the extensions which will waste your time.
If a "Matlab-clone" won't meet your needs, the package sagemath is more like Mathematica, and is also in RPi's package repository:
apt-cache showpkg sagemath
shows us that version 8.6-6 is available as a direct install using
apt, while the current version is 9.2, and could (probably) be built from source. sagemath may also be run from the shell's command line interface. Please refer to the sagemath GitHub site for other details.
In closing, I must also say this: Your question was interesting enough to research, but strikes me as a silly idea for anyone with an even moderately capable laptop or desktop machine.