I'm looking to download the .deb files directly from the web, for RaspberryPi OS.
Where should I go to do this, or is one of the default ubuntu versions i.e. Jammie, Kinetic, etc. good enough?
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If you are actually using RpiOS, the URLs are in
/etc/sources/sources.[list,list.d]. However, redirection is often used and you won't find everything in one place, so your best bet is to observe what's used when calling
apt upgrade or similiar.
This can be a bit much to watch, so as muru points out in comments, the
--print-uris option can be used to spit out a list without doing anything else:
apt upgrade --print-uris
This (fairly long) list is of specific files that would be fetched in order to start calculating an update, but the top level of each repo is not hard to deduce from this. If you want the URL of a specific package,
apt install --print-uris [package] will give you that if the package is not already installed (it will not actually be installed with this option either).