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I'm looking to download the .deb files directly from the web, for RaspberryPi OS.

Where should I go to do this, or is one of the default ubuntu versions i.e. Jammie, Kinetic, etc. good enough?

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If you are actually using RpiOS, the URLs are in /etc/sources/sources.[list,list.d]. However, redirection is often used and you won't find everything in one place, so your best bet is to observe what's used when calling apt upgrade or similiar.

This can be a bit much to watch, so as muru points out in comments, the --print-uris option can be used to spit out a list without doing anything else:

apt upgrade --print-uris

This (fairly long) list is of specific files that would be fetched in order to start calculating an update, but the top level of each repo is not hard to deduce from this. If you want the URL of a specific package, apt install --print-uris [package] will give you that if the package is not already installed (it will not actually be installed with this option either).

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    See also: the --print-uris option
    – muru
    Jan 2, 2023 at 15:43
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    It's worth noting that apt by default checks signatures to check integrity of the packages. By directly downloading those files by their URIs, you're losing out on those integrity checks, it's possible for a compromised mirror to then distribute bad packages. If you have a copy of the apt source list and the repo keys (or equivalently another raspberrypi system) then you can use apt to download and verify it with apt download <packaage-name>.
    – Torin
    Jan 2, 2023 at 16:17

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